Ion exchange technologies based on passing the water through a filtering layer of ion-exchange material, insoluble in water, but can interact with the treated water ions. When the ions that need to be removed are being trapped in the layer of ion-exchange material.
Ion exchange material (ion exchanger), natural or artificial, contains Ionic groups, counter-ions that are balanced in such a way that the overall environment was electrically neutral. By passing water through these materials, certain ions are delayed, ion exchanger moving in water. There are various ion-exchange materials that allow you to selectively delete those from water or other trace elements (special resin selectivity).
The ion exchange process percolates water through bead-like spherical resin materials (ion-exchange resins). The two most common ion-exchange methods are softening and deionization. Deionization (DI) beads exchange either hydrogen ions for cations or hydroxyl ions for anions. read more
Ion exchange resins are divided into cation and anion exchangers, depending on what exchange ions: cations or anions.
Some natural materials (clay, bauxite, etc.) have the ability to exchange ions, but at present are mainly synthetic ion-exchange resins.
An important property of ion-exchange material is the number of ions that can be removed from the treated water. The total capacity of the ion-exchange material depends on the number of functional groups in the ion exchange resin. on ion-exchange filter continue until the breakthrough in leachate detained ions. Then disable the filter on the regeneration and the regeneration time water should be cleaned parallel filters.
The regeneration consists of passing through the layer of ion-exchange resin recycling solution. For regeneration of cation using solutions of table salt, sulfuric or hydrochloric acids (depending on the type of cation). Regeneration of anion is usually soda, caustic soda or sodium bicarbonate. The exhaust regeneration solutions and then recycled.
Scientific-production enterprise “National Center for water technology uses ion exchange for water softening filters (extract ions Ca2 + and Mg2 +) ions from water to remove other metals, for example, Ba2 +, Sr2 + and heavy metals, as well as for water desalination. To extract the anions, e.g., NO3-, SO42-, humic acids are used anion exchangers.
Advantages of technology
the technology allows to effectively reduce water hardness, harmful ions and total salinity;
ion exchange processes can be used on small, remote locations, where it is difficult to apply alternative methods of water purification;
low capital costs when implementing technology;
Ion exchange-mastered the process, so the equipment is picked up and standardized. Solved issues of process control, automation, regeneration, prevent corrosion, etc.
Disadvantages of technology:
high current health costs are determined by technologies need constant regeneration of ion exchange and anion exchange resins solutions of salts, acids and alkalis;
storage of potent reagents for regeneration of ion-exchanging pitches filter limits the possibility of using this method;
Education leaching solutions after regeneration, dumping such small objects usually does not cause complications because the sewerage they dilute to concentrations.
Industrial water treatment
Chemical water treatment system is a system of hardware and complex technological solutions that require professional and neat design in accordance with the rules and requirements for water quality, which operate in a particular industry.
When such projects must take into account that industrial water treatment is an activity related to special requirements with respect to all phases of the work, including the drafting of a system, its embodiment, selection and installation of equipment, construction of sewage treatment plants, timely maintenance, if necessary, replacement of filtering elements.
Natural underground or ground water sources, that would be different requirements for full compliance of the industry requirements for the moment simply does not exist. It is therefore only natural that industrial water treatment is needed in all enterprises where the water is used as a basic resources, as well as in the area of housing.
Depending on the purpose and scope of future water use choose and method of performing this task. Inherently water-the combination of physical and chemical water treatment methods that allow you to bring water to the desired quality for future use.
Water treatment: basic techniques
There is an impressive amount of processing methods and technologies for industrial water purification. Each such method-its function and scope, clearly outlined the technical capacity of the water treatment technologies.
Water aeration. This process represents the oxygen saturation of water how to oxidize in it elements-for example, organic compounds, iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide (or decarbonization) and activation of the catalytic abilities are used later in the process chain grainy weekly.
This same technology water treatment applied to the biological treatment of wastewater, in order to ensure the possibility of vital activity of aerobic micro-organisms involved in the process.
Aeration is both water where occurs on special water blowing method no separate gearbox filed air and pressure where there is saturation of water with oxygen. Both methods have their own specifics aeration application depending on the composition of the source water and scope of technology. Water treatment using Prefilters and microfilters used most often in heating systems. Only in this way it becomes possible to create the conditions for protection of the equipment from the abrasive effects of solid particles in the water, as well as deposits, deteriorating the work units and causing them damage.
water purification is to reduce its hardness (magnesium and calcium ion concentration). More often than not allowed water hardness in the system at the level of -1.5 1.0 MEQ/l in accordance with international requirements for the operation of household appliances and industrial equipment. Respecting these norms will not sediment. This industrial water-softening as a mandatory step in water treatment technologies in metallurgy, perfumery, pharmaceutical, food and petrochemical industries.
Ozonation of water can be attributed to the highly effective modern methods that use for water treatment of ozone-treated water saturation. Under the influence of ozone-air mixture all dissolved impurities are moving into hard physical phase and fall out. With the subsequent mechanical filtering filter fine purification filter or filters with granular, it is completely removed. Once in the reactor tank oxidation process of sewage treatment plants, the remainder of the ozone is removed on special techniques ecology therefore, destructors, becoming one of the defining factors in favor of this processing technology.
the permanent development of systems for water purification, has been designing wastewater treatment plant, providing a full spectrum of necessary documentation for these purposes and equipment. We offer a wide choice of various types of equipment and different methods, on the basis of which can be made water purification of almost any complexity. Depending on the features of technological process system of water treatment and construction of sewage treatment plants could be solved also in accordance with individual needs, on the basis of the existing specific enterprises.
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