Ovarian cysts – causes and treatment

Ovarian cyst – a fluid-filled small “bag”, formed in the ovaries of women. Most cysts are harmless and go away on their own, but some of them can cause problems such as rupture, bleeding and pain in the ovaries. In such cases, the cyst or cysts removed surgically.

Normally a woman – two of the ovary where the egg and where they get their time in the uterus. Each ovary is about the size of a walnut and is located on the side of the uterus. Each month the ovary releases one egg. Ovum is “capsule”, called follicles. Egg grows in the ovary, while estrogen makes the uterus ready to accept a signal egg. In response begin to thicken the uterine wall to be ready for implantation of a fertilized egg. This cycle is repeated every month and usually ends with the unfertilized egg makes the uterus. This is menstruation.

The image obtained by ultrasound, ovarian cysts resemble bubbles. Cyst contains only fluid that surrounds a very thin wall. This is called a functional cyst, or simple cyst. If the follicle for some reason can not open up and release an egg, the fluid remains inside and forms a cyst. Usually, cysts formed in only one ovary. Small cysts (less than 2.5 cm in diameter) can be formed and healthy ovaries.

Ovarian cysts may occur whenever a woman, but often formed of childbearing age. Mostly these are functional cysts. They are considered normal and does not indicate the presence of any disease.

Variety of functional ovarian cysts

Follicular cyst

Follicular cyst forms when ovulation occurs. This cyst may reach 6-9 centimeters in diameter. The gap follicular cyst can cause acute unilateral pain. Painful symptoms are about a quarter of women with this type of cyst. Typically, such a cyst disappears after a couple of months alone.

Corpus luteum cyst

Corpus luteum cyst formed after the egg out of the follicle. Then the so-called follicle becomes the corpus luteum. This is a temporary gland, which produces hormones, preparing the uterus for possible pregnancy; If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum usually just disappears. However, it can be filled with liquid – blood, for example, remain in the ovary. Corpus luteum cyst usually forms only in one ovary has no symptoms and disappear with time itself.

Hemorrhagic cyst

This type of functional cyst occurs when bleeding starts within the cyst. Its symptom is pain on one side of the abdomen.

dermoid cyst

Benign tumors of this type are sometimes also called mature cystic teratoma. This cyst develops mainly in young women and can reach 15 centimeters in diameter. It may contain fat, various tissues and even particles of bone, cartilage and hair. Because of this, ultrasound does not always give a clear picture of such cysts. Its better to survey using computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. These cysts can become inflamed and kink, causing severe abdominal pain.

endometrioid cyst and endometrioma

Formed when the ovaries get cell walls of the inner layer of the uterus (endometrial cells). Typically, the disease is in women of childbearing age; it can lead to chronic pain during menstruation.

Endometriosis – is the presence of endometrial cells outside the uterus. Women with this condition may experience problems with pregnancy and pregnancy. Endometrioid cyst diameter from 2 to 20 centimeters.

Polycystic ovaries

This diagnosis is when the ovaries significantly increased – usually twice the norm, and on the surface there are multiple small cysts. This happens in healthy women and women with hormonal disorders. The ovaries are examined by ultrasound.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovaries are not the same thing as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The latter includes, in addition to ovarian cysts, many other physiological disorders. In PCOS increases the risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

PCOS can cause infertility, bleeding, women with this syndrome increased chance of miscarriage and other complications during pregnancy.

PCOS is very common; it is believed that it occurs in 4-7% of women of reproductive age. The syndrome is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. To diagnose PCOS, not just one ultrasound – for accurate diagnosis requires multiple methods.


This benign tumor formed from cells of the ovaries. Some cystadenoma filled with mucus. In some cases, they reach 30 centimeters in diameter.

Risk Factors

A history of ovarian cysts
Irregular menses
Large deposits of fat in the upper body
Early start of menstruation (11 years or earlier)
Hypothyroidism or hormonal disorders
Tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer
Hormonal contraceptive pill reduces the risk of ovarian cysts, as pills do not give the ovaries to release an egg during ovulation.


Most ovarian cysts are asymptomatic and found in their survey intended for another reason. However sometimes symptoms may include:

Pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis
Irregular menses
Feeling pressure in the lower abdomen or pelvis
Pain in the pelvis after intense exercise and / or after intercourse
Pain or pressure during urination
Nausea and vomiting
Vaginal pain and / or discharge from the blood (not during menstruation)

You should also contact your doctor at occurrence of the following symptoms:

Unusually severe pain in the abdomen
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness, dizziness, fainting
Strong pallor and / or anemia (possibly from blood loss)
Unusually heavy and irregular periods
Bloating or rapidly increasing waist
Abdominal pain after taking drugs that thinning the blood (eg warfarin)
Increasing the number of facial hair in male pattern
High or low blood pressure, not associated with taking medications
Excessive thirst and / or urination
Weight loss without apparent reason
When these symptoms should immediately seek medical attention or call an ambulance:

Weakness, dizziness, fainting condition on the brink, especially when you stand
Persistent fever
Acute pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis
Strong reduction or increase in blood pressure, not associated with the intake of medicines
Excessive thirst and / or urination
Without cause pain in the shoulders and abdominal pain
Prolonged nausea and vomiting.

The main cause of follicular ovarian cyst is a lack of ovulation in women, Under the term “ovarian cyst” is hiding a large group of tumor growths that differ here the second structure, the reasons for the occurrence, Such formation in most cases do not require treatment, The main causes of ovarian cysts: genetic and hormonal disruptions, abortion, ovarian cysts treatment, ovarian cysts symptoms, ovarian cysts and pregnancy, ovarian cysts causes, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian cancer symptoms.

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